Cash Management in Hospitality Sector of Western Europe

  • Wisal Ahmad
  • Shawali Khan
  • Muhammad Sohail Yunis


The study investigates the effect of factors explaining the cash holdings of hospitality sector in five countries of Western Europe, namely, France, Germany, Spain, Italy and United Kingdom for a period of 12 years (2005-2016). The effect of parameters i.e., size, leverage, capital expenditures, growth opportunities, liquidity, cash flow, asset intangibility, cash flow volatility, dividend payments and stock exchange on cash holdings has been empirically tested by employing dynamic estimation methodology i.e., Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). The findings reveal that growth opportunities and dividend payments have a positive effect on cash holdings, while size, leverage, liquidity, cash flow, asset intangibility, cash flow volatility and stock exchange pose a negative effect. Moreover, the subsectors such as airlines, gambling and restaurants and bars are holding more cash in comparison to the travel and tourism. The study empirically supports the trade-off, pecking order and free cash flow theories of cash holdings for the hospitality sector. The academic implications of the study reflect that larger companies in the hospitality sector of Western Europe are more diversified and hence amass more cash. Similarly, supporting the cash flow theory, larger hospitality sector companies hold more cash to bar the agency issues. Moreover, companies in the hospitality sector keep less cash as such companies face close monitoring and attain leverage cheaply. Supporting the trade off theory, companies in the hospitality sector hold considerable fund of cash to counter cash shortages for making investments. Furthermore, companies in the hospitality sector experiencing more cash flows keep less cash, as influx of cash flows serve as a source of liquidity. Furthermore, to be able to pay stable dividends, the hospitality sector companies amass more cash and hence support the trade off theory. The practical implications of the study shows that by utilizing the empirical findings in this study, an investor sensitive to empire-building traits of managers for their private benefits, can infer that large hospitality companies with more leverage and capital expenditures will hold less cash. However, holding excessive cash in such companies can create agency problems. On the other hand, large hospitality companies holding more cash would have an ease in practicing debt financing as holding more cash is an indication of diversification and expansion, making shareholders more heedful about their net earnings.
How to Cite
AHMAD , Wisal; KHAN , Shawali; YUNIS , Muhammad Sohail. Cash Management in Hospitality Sector of Western Europe . Business & Economic Review, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 2, p. 109-128, june 2020. ISSN 2519-1233. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 25 feb. 2024.