Review and Publication Process
1. The editorial committee checks each submitted article or invites relevant co-Editor to assess:
a. relevancy of the article to the scope of B&ER
b. that the article is free of gross grammatical and conceptual mistakes
c. that the article makes enough contribution to the literature
d. that the topic is interesting, and is highly relevant to practice
e. that the methods applied are appropriate
2. If an article fails to qualify the criteria mentioned in 1(a-e), the editorial committee will send a rejection email to authors within 15 working days of the submission.
3. Submission fee: Authors, having addresses in Pakistan, will pay a submission fee of Rs. 4 000 to B&ER upon successful desk review. There is no submission fee for authors outside Pakistan.
4. After the successful desk review, each paper will be sent first to a local reviewer and if the reviewer recommends publication, the paper is then sent to the first foreign reviewer. Again, if the paper passes through that stage, it is then sent to the second foreign reviewer.
5. Authors who have immediate publication needs can pay the reviewing fee (Rs. 3000 to local, plus $100 to the first foreign, plus $100 to the second foreign reviewer) to the journal to avail simultaneous reviews from all three reviewers. Paying this fee does not guarantee publication. This fee is paid to the reviewers.
6. A paper is accepted for publication only if the majority of the reviewers recommend the paper for publication. Without simultaneous reviews, it is normal for the review process to take up to 6 months.
7. A maximum number of authors is 3 per article. Authorship cannot be changed after the first review of the paper.
8. Each article is checked for a similarity index using Turnitin®. An article having a similarity index of 14% in total and/or 4% with a single source will be rejected.
9. The editor might ask authors to submit datasets in case enough doubt is expressed by a reviewer on the validity of the results.
10. Authors cannot use self-citations more than 5 times in a single paper.
11. In the case of grammatical mistakes, the authors may be asked to get the paper proofread by a professional, along with a proofreading certificate.
1 2. In a single issue, an author cannot publish two papers, regardless of whether the author is the principal or a co-author.
13. Publication fee: The journal charges a publication fee of Rs. 4000 per article. In return, the Editor will send a free copy of the journal to each author. There is no publication fee for authors outside Pakistan.
14. Article withdrawal fee: Authors shall be required to reimburse the expenses associated with the reviewing process (Rs. 10,000 or $100) in the following circumstances:
- If the paper was sent for a review and the reviewer suggested “revise and resubmit”, however, the author(s) fail to submit a revised draft within the stipulated time. In such cases, the Editor will send two reminders to the authors with a deadline of 3 days. If the Editor does not receive any response from the authors, the authors will be blacklisted for future submissions.
- If the author(s) decide to withdraw their paper at a stage when the paper has already been sent for the review.
- If the authors were found to have submitted the article to other journals.
Open Access Licensing/ Archiving Policy
The Business & Economic Review maintains online records of all published articles on its website.The journal also supports wide dissemination of the research it publishes. Authors are free to post copies of the final published version on any online repositories or other web sites
Authors sign an exclusive license agreement, where authors have copyright but license exclusive rights in their article to the publisher. In this case authors have the right to:
- Share their article in the same ways permitted to third parties under the relevant user license
- Retain patent, trademark and other intellectual property rights (including research data)
- Proper attribution and credit for the published work
Article Retraction / Correction Policies
The journal editors will retract a paper if:
- they have clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error).
- its findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper crossreferencing, permission or justification
- it constitutes plagiarism
- it reports unethical research
Journal editors will issue an expression of concern if:
- they receive insufficient or inconclusive evidence of research or publication misconduct on part of the authors
- there is evidence that the findings are unreliable but the authors’ institution will not investigate the case
Journal editors will consider issuing a correction certificate if:
- a small portion of an otherwise reliable publication proves to be misleading (especially because of honest error)
- the author/contributor list is incorrect (i.e. a deserving author has been omitted or somebody who does not meet authorship criteria has been included)
Retractions are not appropriate if:
- a change of authorship is required but there is no reason to doubt the validity of the findings
Notices of retraction would:
- be linked to the retracted article wherever possible (i.e. in all electronic versions)
- clearly identify the retracted article (e.g. by including the title and authors in the retraction heading)
- be clearly identified as a retraction (i.e. distinct from other types of correction or comment)
- be published promptly to minimize harmful effects from misleading publications
- be freely available to all readers (i.e. not behind access barriers or available only to subscribers)
- state who is retracting the article
- state the reason(s) for retraction (to distinguish misconduct from honest error)
- avoid statements that are potentially defamatory or libelous