Vicarious Learning of FATA Women Entrepreneurs in Pakistan

  • Maryam Hina
  • Zunaira Saqib
  • Maria Khan


This study explores how women in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) learn and develop business skills through role models’ assistance. The research is conducted with an interpretivist philosophy using qualitative methodology. The research concludes that FATA women’s entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intentions allowed them to look towards role models, based on perceived similarity, prevalence, proximity, and, trust. Role models mostly consisted of family, peers, mentors, academics and symbolic figures. The entrepreneurial women recalled learning interactions with their role model, acquired skills to perform the observed behaviour, and received consistent feedback from mentors. Both direct and vicarious reinforcement enabled them to pursue their entrepreneurial endeavours.
How to Cite
HINA , Maryam; SAQIB , Zunaira; KHAN , Maria. Vicarious Learning of FATA Women Entrepreneurs in Pakistan . Business & Economic Review, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 4, p. 59-88, dec. 2019. ISSN 2519-1233. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 23 apr. 2024.